CHAPTER 2 NOTES – EXPLORERS
1. ERIC THE RED – (about 1000) Viking explorer from Scandinavia who explored Greenland
2. LEIF ERIKSSON – (1001) Viking explorer established settlement in Newfoundland Canada. 1013 they left, reason unknown.
3. MARCO POLO (1270’s) Italy – traveled to China in 1271, spent 24 years in China. Returned and wrote a book about wonders and riches of China & Asia
4. PRINCE HENRY “THE NAVIGATOR” (1420) Portugal – Set up a school for sailors.
5. BARTHOLOMEU DIAS (1487) Portugal – 1st to sail around southern tip of Africa. Named Cape of Good Hope.
6. COLUMBUS (1492) Spain – Set sail for Asia in August 1492 with 3 ships, Santa Maria, Nina & Pinta. October 12 reached West Indies (San Salvador). Made 4 voyages to New World & set up a colony on Hispaniola (Haiti & Dominican Republic). Queen Isabella from Spain financed voyage.
7. LINE OF DEMARCATION (1493-1494) – Pope Alexander VI drew a line dividing land between Portugal and Spain. West > Spain / East > Portugal
8. VASCO DE GAMA (1497) Portugal – Sailed around Africa and to India. 1st to establish a route to Asia. Set up a wealthy trading empire with Asia
9. JOHN CABOT (1497) England – Explored Nova Scotia and Northeast part of the U.S. in search for a northern route to Asia. England uses his voyage to claim land in North America.
10. AMERIGO VESPUCCI (1499) Italy – Sailed along South America and wrote about a new world more populated and more animals than anywhere else. Mapped South America and realized it was a continent and not part of Asia. America is named after him.
11. PEDRO CABRAL (1500) Portugal – Ship blown off course while trying to go around Africa to India and lands in South America and claims it for Portugal. (Brazil)
12. VASCO NUNEZ de BALBOA (1513) Spain – Crossed Isthmus of Panama and claimed Pacific Ocean for Spain. 1st European to see the Pacific Ocean from the Americas.
13. FERDINAND MAGELLAN (1519) Spain – Led 5 ships and 268 men. Sailed around southern tip of South America and through the Strait of Magellan and into Pacific Ocean (he named it Pacific) to the Philippines where he was killed. In 1522 1 ship and 18 sailors reach Spain. 1st to circumnavigate (circle) the globe.
14. CONQUISTADOR – Bold conquerors who fought for God, the king and to get rich. Explore and establish settlements. Country received 1/5 of all gold & treasure.
15. JUAN PONCE de LEON (1513) Spain – Conquistador made 1st Spanish landing on mainland North America (Florida) searching for the fountain of youth. Explored Puerto Rico and was first governor.
16. HERNANDO CORTES (1519) Spain – Conquistador, captures Tenochtitlan (Aztec Capital). Montezuma, Aztec emperor, believes they are gods sent from Quetzalcoatl. Cortes joins forces with other Natives (Dona Marina) and conquers Aztec empire.
17. FRANCISCO PIZARRO (1532) Spain – Conquistador, attacked and conquered Cuzco, Inca capital & killed Inca ruler. By 1535 Pizarro had control of Inca empire.
18. ALVAR NUNEZ CABEZA de VACA & PANFILO NARVAEZ & ESTEVANICO (1528-1536) Spain – Searching for the 7 cities of gold (Cibola), explored Florida & Gulf of Mexico. Shipwrecked, de Vaca and Estevanico continue on, learn Native American languages. Estevanico is killed by Zuni.
19. HERNANDO de SOTO (1539-1542) Spain – Searching for Cibola, 7 cities of gold, explored Florida, Southeast U.S., & Mississippi River.
20. FRANCISCO de CORONADO (1540-1547) Spain – Leads expedition from Mexico into the Southwest looking for 7 cities of gold. Discovers Zuni Indians, Grand Canyon and goes to Kansas. Never finds Cibola.
CHAPTER 2 NOTES – EXPLORERS