Chapter 5 Notes “Events Leading to the Revolution”


Proclamation of 1763 – Forbade colonists to settle west of Appalachian Mtns.
Reason – Easier to keep control of colonists, reduce tensions between whites and Indians, and maintain good supply of furs.  British troops permanently stationed in America to maintain order.
Colonists were not happy!

I.  Grenville Acts – George Grenville is placed in charge of enforcing existing policies and help Britain get out of debt from French & Indian War.
A.  Sugar Act  1764 -> tax on sugar, wine, coffee and lowered tax on molasses.
B.  Stamp Act  1765 -> tax on newspapers, pamphlets, contracts, wills, cards, dice, and most printed material
C.  Quartering Act -> Colonists must provide housing & supplies to British Soldiers.
II.  Colonists very upset
A.    Direct Representation -> colonists felt that direct representation was needed in Parliament.
B.    Patrick Henry -> “No Taxation without Representation”
C.    Sons of Liberty (Boston) -> Samuel Adams starts group to protest British policies (Stamp Act).
D.    Stamp Act Congress -> Colonists organized a boycott on British goods and called for British government to repeal Stamp Act.
E.    March 1766 Parliament repeals Stamp Act -> British merchants upset because of boycott.
F.    Parliament passes Declaratory Act –> said British had right to “tax & pass laws for colonists in all cases”.

III.    Townshend Acts 1767 -> placed tax on imported goods such as lead, paper, paint, glass & tea.
A.    Writs of Assistance (search warrants) for suspected smuggled goods.
B.    Boycotts begin again – Daughters of Liberty protest British policies and help produce American made goods.

IV.    Trouble in Boston – British send troops to maintain order in Boston.
A.    Boston Massacre -> March 5, 1770 a crowd gathers in Boston to protest the British.  Colonists taunt & threaten British soldiers.  Nervous & confused, British soldiers fire into crowd killing 5 Americans.  Trial finds 2 guilty & the rest were fighting in self-defense.
B.    Paul Revere & Sam Adams use “Propaganda” (information designed to influence opinion) to spread negative information about the British.
C.    Parliament repeals Townshend Acts, except tax on tea.

V.  Tea Crisis
A.  Tea Act of 1773 –> To help the British East India Company from bankruptcy, Parliament allows them to ship tea to America without being taxed.
B.  Tea shipped to Philadelphia & New York is sent back.
C.  Governor of Boston orders tea unloaded.
D.  Dec. 16, 1773 Sons of Liberty dressed as Indians dump cargo of 3 ships into Boston harbor (Boston Tea Party).

VI.  Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts) 1774 ->  King & Parliament vow to punish Boston
1.    Port of Boston closed until tea is paid for.
2.    Banned town meetings
3.    British officials to be tried in other courts.
4.    British troops to be quartered in private homes.

VII.    Quebec Act -> allowed French Canadians to retain laws, language, & religion.  Land west of Appalachian Mtns. & north of Ohio River belonged to Quebec, not colonists.
VIII.    Continental Congress 1774 -> To maintain peace colonists sent letter of grievances to King & asked Parliament to repeal certain laws.
A.    Boycotts on ALL British goods.
B.    Each colony sets up  militia.

IX.    Colonists begin collecting and storing guns and ammunition at Concord.
A.    British go to seize the weapons at Concord
B.    Paul Revere & William Dawes warn the Patriots of British advances.  “The regulars are out”
C.    Lexington – Minutemen meet British (8 minutemen killed)
D.    Concord – British are turned back

X.  2nd Continental Congress May 1775 
A.   (John & Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, George Washington, Ben Franklin, John Hancock, Thomas Jefferson)
B.  Congress began to govern the colonies, printed money, set up a post office, created the Continental Army & named Washington as commander.
C.  Olive Branch Petition sent to King George III as one last appeal for peace.  King George III turns it down and declares Americans to be rebels.


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