Early Americans
1. The first Americans to inhabit North America came from Asia by
way of a Land Bridge “Beringia” that connected Russia and Alaska
2. They were “nomads” people who wander following food
(hunters/gatherers) and they followed the animals across.
3. Archeology – the study of ancient peoples/cultures
4. Artifacts – things such as tool, weapons, and other things left
behind by early people
5. Carbon Dating – a method of dating that measures the amount of
carbon in something
6. Maize – “corn” changed Indians way of life by allowing them to
settle down, form communities and raise food rather than be


Know the definitions to the following words:
quipus archaeology adobe
terraces pueblo federation
culture hieroglyphics theocracy
nomad carbon dating artifact
Know the following:
1. Who were the Aztecs, where did they live, and what did they do?
2. What was the land bridge called that the first Native Americans crossed into North
America and what two places did it connect?
3. The discovery of what food turned nomads into farmers?
4. What did the Mayan people create that we still use today, dealing with astronomy?
5. What was the capital of the Aztecs?
6. What did the Aztecs and Mayas organize their societies around?
7. Which was the largest of the early American civilizations in South & Central
8. Know the three tribes that were considered part of the “Mound Builders”.
9. What was the largest settlement of the Mound Builders?
10. Who chose the members of the Iroquois League?
11. Why did the Anasazi build cliff dwellings? (2 reasons)
12. Where did the Maya, Aztec & Inca live?
13. In the 1500’s what changed the Indians way of life forever?
14. What was the title of the leader of the Inca and who was he a descendant of?
15. What did agriculture allow early Americans to do?
16. Where is Machu Picchu and which tribe built it?
17. What was the main food source for the Plains Indians?
18. Which civilization built stone paved roads over mountains to connect cities?
19. According to the Inca, what did the Sun God enjoy?
20. Where is Tenochtitlan and which tribe built it? What present day city now stands
where Tenochtitlan once stood?
21. Which group of Native Americans wore sealskin?
22. What was the main food source of the Northwest Coast culture?
23. Which culture region used tepees?
24. How did the Iroquois promote peace?
25. Which Native American tribe required human sacrifices?


“North American Peoples”
1. Where did the Hohokam live?
2. When did the Hohokam culture flourish?
3. Where did the Anasazi live?
4. What is a pueblo?
5. Why did the Anasazi build cliff dwellings? (two main reasons)
6. Why do historians believe that the cultures of Mexico and Central America
influenced the people living in the north known as the Mound Builders?
7. Using the map or reading on page 18 list the three groups known as the
Mound Builders.
8. Fill in the blanks. “The Hopewell built huge _______________ ________________ in
the shapes of ___________________, _____________________, and ________________________.”
9. What was the largest settlement of the Mound Builders?
10. What is the largest serpent effigy mound in the United States called?
11. Give three facts about the Inuit people.
12. What was the main food source for the peoples of the northwestern coast?
13. What two tribes were located in the Plateau Region?
14. Name two recent tribes located in the Great Basin Region.
15. Give three facts about the “Peoples of the Southwest”.
16. What did the people of the plains use for shelter?
17. What animal was the primary food source for the plains Indians?
18. Who first brought the horse to the Americas?
19. What is a federation?
20. What five Iroquois nations located in the northeast created the Iroquois
21. In the 1500’s the five Iroquois groups established the ______________ ____________.
22. What was the purpose of the Iroquois Grand Council?
23. Who chose the delegates to the Grand Council?
24. What crops did the people of the southeast grow?
25. The arrival of who in the 1500’s changed the Native American’s life forever?

Notes- Maya, Aztec, Inca

(Chapter 1 Section 2)


–    Located in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, & Belize
–    Farmers – maize, beans, sweet potatoes
–    Built pyramids
–    Tikal – largest & capital city (present day Guatemala)
–    Religion was very important, believed in many Gods
–    Theocracy – Government ruled by religious leaders
–    Astronomers – developed 365 day calendar
–    Used hieroglyphics – picture writing
–    300-1100 A.D.

–    Located in Mexico
–    1300-1600 A.D.
–    Tenochtitlan – Capital & largest city (present day Mexico City) originally built on island in Lake Texcoco
–    Warlike
–    Religion very important
–    Offered human sacrifices to the Sun God
–    Conquered by Cortes & Spanish
–    Created floating gardens

-1500 B.C. – 300 B.C
-Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras

–    Located in west coast of South America (Andes)
–    Largest empire in South & Central America
–    Cuzco – Capital & largest city
–    3,000 miles long
–    Warlike
–    9 million people at height
–    built network of roads connecting cities (10,000 miles)
–    built terraces (broad platforms in mountain) for farming
–    Emperor – descendant of Sun God
–    Machu Picchu – religious city high in Andes (Peru)
–    Very good at medicine – performed brain surgery, treated malaria & other diseases
–    Farmers – maize, beans, squash, sweet potatoes, cotton, peanuts
–    Conquered by Pizzaro & Europeans
–    Quipus – record keeping system using string

United States Map Test Review

Know the location and names of the 50 states.

Know the capital for each state.

Be able to label Canada & Mexico

Water – Be able to name and locate the following bodies of water or rivers:

Atlantic Ocean

Pacific Ocean

Gulf of Mexico

Gulf of Alaska

Bering Strait

Chesapeake Bay

Great Salt Lake

Lake Superior

Lake Michigan

Lake Huron

Lake Erie

Lake Ontario

Lake Champlain

Colorado River

Platte River

Mississippi River

Missouri River

Ohio River

Rio Grande

Columbia River

Snake River

Hudson River

St. Lawrence River

Yukon River

Red River

Arkansas River

Tennessee River

Sacramento River

Physical Features – Know where the following physical features are located:

Sierra Nevada Mtns.

Rocky Mtns.

Appalachian Mtns.

Great Plains

Great Basin

Cities – Know where on a map the following cities would be found:

New York City


Washington D.C.


Salt Lake City

San Diego

Los Angeles

San Francisco