Chapter 4 Section 2 Notes “Colonial Rule”



Glorious Revolution – James II tries to take back powers from parliament and tighten control over the colonies.  1688 Parliament force James II out and places his daughter Mary and her Dutch husband, William of Orange on the throne.  Glorious because no bloodshed.

English Bill of Rights (1689) is signed by William and Mary guaranteeing certain basic rights.

Mercantilism — England saw North America as an economic resource

Navigation Acts – To make certain only England benefited from trade with the colonies.
1.   All colonial products going to England must be shipped on English ships
2.  Sugar and tobacco could not be sent outside England’s empire.

Magna Carta – in 1215 King John was forced to sign the Magna Carta which lessened the king’s powers and gave certain rights to citizens.

representative government — people choose their leaders who then represent them
limited government – the idea that government is not all powerful and can not do whatever they want.

Charter Colonies – establishes by settlers who had been given a charter or grant.  These colonists elected their own governors and legislature.  Great Britain had the right to approve the governor but the governor could not veto acts of the legislature.  (CT, RI)

Proprietary  Colonies – Individuals who had been granted land.  Proprietors ruled as they wished by appointing the governor and members of the upper house while colonists elected the lower house.  (DE, MD, PA)

Royal Colonies — Britain directly ruled Royal Colonies.  The king appoints the governor and council (upper house).  Colonists elected the lower house (assembly).  They did what British leaders told them to. (GA, MA, NH, NJ, NY, NC, SC, VA)


The Great Awakening — a religious revival from 1720-1740’s.  Many  new churches started

Chapter 3 Section 3 “The Middle Colonies”

Chapter 3 Section 3 – THE MIDDLE COLONIES

NEW YORK – 1664 Dutch control New Netherlands & New Sweden (New York & New Jersey).

  1. Charles II gave his brother, the Duke of York, title to the area from Connecticut south to Maryland.
  2. When English arrive in New Netherlands, the Dutch give up land to the English.  New Netherlands & New Amsterdam are renamed New York in honor of Duke of York.  Dutch retain language, customs & culture.
  3. Duke of York gave southern part of his colony to John Berkeley and George Carteret who rename their portion New Jersey.

PENNSYLVANIA – (1681) William Penn is a member of Quaker religion (pacifists).  Asks king for land in America.  King owed his father a large debt.

  1. William Penn designs Philadelphia & it becomes main city (city of brotherly love) & writes own constitution
  2. Settlers from many countries come to Pennsylvania to worship

DELAWARE – Southern part of Pennsylvania breaks off to form Delaware.

Chapter 3 Section 2 Notes “New England Colonies”


New England Colonies

Religious Freedom – Many people in England were persecuted for their religious beliefs.
1.  Separatists – wanted to separate from the Church of England and set up their own church.
A.  Separatists were persecuted in England and some fled to the Netherlands for religious freedom.
B.  Separatists make arrangement with the Virginia Company to go to Virginia and worship freely but would give a portion of profits to the company.
C.  Separatists (Pilgrims) and others board Mayflower in 1620.
D.  Land in Plymouth (Mass) in December 1620.
E.  William Bradford is their leader.
F.  They sign the Mayflower Compact (laws, loyalty, & governing body).
G.  Squanto & Samoset befriend colonists and teach them to hunt & fish.
H.  The following year is the first Thanksgiving with Pilgrims & Indians

2.    Puritans – wanted to change or reform the Church of England.
A.    King Charles persecuted Puritans.
B.    1629 Puritans form the Massachusetts Bay Company
C.    John Winthrop is chosen as governor and leader.
D.    1630 Puritans (900) land in Massachusetts Bay and settle Boston.
E.    15,000 Puritans journey to Massachusetts for religious freedom (Great Migration)
F.    Puritans had little toleration for other faiths

3.    Roger Williams – minister who believed people 1-should worship as they please, 2-Indian lands should be bought and not taken, 3- church and government should be separate.
A.    Williams is forced to flee and establishes Providence in Rhode Island
B.    People were allowed to worship freely and everyone could vote.

4.    Thomas Hooker – minister who is upset with Puritans and their laws.
A.    Led his followers through the wilderness and establishes Hartford, Connecticut.
B.    Sets up Fundamental Orders of Connecticut –  First written constitution in America.

5.  Anne Hutchinson – questions the religious authority of colony’s ministers.  She is forced to leave and settles in Rhode Island.

6.  Conflict with Native Americans – King Philip’s War – Metacomet (King Philip) Wampanoag Chief attacked settlers killing hundreds of settlers.  Settlers fight back and defeat Wampanoag people.  Destroyed power of Indians in region.

Chapter 3 Section 1 Notes “Jamestown”


I  England in America
1.  England & Spain are at war (1588-1604) over trading and religion.
2.  The Spanish Armada was the most powerful naval force in world.
3.  England defeats Spanish Armada & Spanish control of the seas.

A.  Lost Colony
1.  1587 Walter Raleigh established colony on Roanoke Island (Lost Colony)              failed.
*Charter – the right to organize settlements in an area.
*Joint-stock company – a company in which investors buy stock in the company in return for a share of its future profits.

II  Jamestown – (Joint Stock Company –“Virginia or London Company”)
A.    Jamestown (1607) first permanent English settlement.
B.    Captain John Smith saves Jamestown by trading with Indians.
C.    Pocahontas saves John Smith’s life
D.    Starving Time – disease, lack of food, searching for gold – colony is almost lost.
E.    John Rolfe introduces tobacco and it becomes major crop sold to England to buy manufactured goods.
F.    Indian-settler relations – friendly until colony grew and took land from Indians.  John Rolfe marries Pocahontas.

III Representative Government 
A.    House of Burgesses – representatives met to make local laws.  First form of representative government in America.

IV.    New Arrivals in Jamestown
A.    Women
B.    Africans to work the tobacco fields



1.    ERIC THE RED – (about 1000) Viking explorer from Scandinavia who explored Greenland
2.    LEIF ERIKSSON – (1001) Viking explorer established settlement in Newfoundland Canada.  1013 they left, reason unknown.
3.    MARCO POLO  (1270’s) Italy – traveled to China in 1271, spent 24 years in China.  Returned and wrote a book about wonders and riches of China & Asia
4.     PRINCE HENRY “THE NAVIGATOR” (1420) Portugal – Set up a school for sailors.
5.    BARTHOLOMEU DIAS (1487) Portugal – 1st to sail around southern tip of Africa.  Named Cape of Good Hope.
6.    COLUMBUS (1492) Spain – Set sail for Asia in August 1492 with 3 ships, Santa Maria, Nina & Pinta.  October 12 reached West Indies (San Salvador).  Made 4 voyages to New World & set up a colony on Hispaniola (Haiti & Dominican Republic).  Queen Isabella from Spain financed voyage.
7.    LINE OF DEMARCATION (1493-1494) – Pope Alexander VI drew a line dividing land between Portugal and Spain.  West > Spain / East > Portugal
8.    VASCO DE GAMA (1497) Portugal – Sailed around Africa and to India.  1st to establish a route to Asia.  Set up a wealthy trading empire with Asia
9.    JOHN CABOT (1497) England – Explored Nova Scotia and Northeast part of the U.S. in search for a northern route to Asia.  England uses his voyage to claim land in North America.
10.    AMERIGO VESPUCCI (1499) Italy – Sailed along South America and wrote about a new world more populated and more animals than anywhere else.  Mapped South America and realized it was a continent and not part of Asia.  America is named after him.
11.    PEDRO CABRAL (1500) Portugal – Ship blown off course while trying to go around Africa to India and lands in South America and claims it for Portugal.  (Brazil)
12.    VASCO NUNEZ de BALBOA (1513) Spain – Crossed Isthmus of Panama and claimed Pacific Ocean for Spain.  1st European to see the Pacific Ocean from the Americas.
13.    FERDINAND MAGELLAN (1519) Spain – Led 5 ships and 268 men.  Sailed around southern tip of South America and through the Strait of Magellan and into Pacific Ocean (he named it Pacific) to the Philippines where he was killed.  In 1522 1 ship and 18 sailors reach Spain.  1st to circumnavigate (circle) the globe.
14.    CONQUISTADOR – Bold conquerors who fought for God, the king and to get rich.  Explore and establish settlements.  Country received 1/5 of all gold & treasure.
15.    JUAN PONCE de LEON (1513) Spain – Conquistador made 1st Spanish landing on mainland North America (Florida) searching for the fountain of youth.  Explored Puerto Rico and was first governor.
16.    HERNANDO CORTES (1519) Spain – Conquistador, captures Tenochtitlan (Aztec Capital).  Montezuma, Aztec emperor, believes they are gods sent from Quetzalcoatl.  Cortes joins forces with other Natives (Dona Marina) and conquers Aztec empire.
17.    FRANCISCO PIZARRO (1532) Spain – Conquistador, attacked and conquered Cuzco, Inca capital & killed Inca ruler.  By 1535 Pizarro had control of Inca empire.
18.    ALVAR NUNEZ CABEZA de VACA & PANFILO NARVAEZ & ESTEVANICO (1528-1536) Spain – Searching for the 7 cities of gold (Cibola), explored Florida & Gulf of Mexico.  Shipwrecked, de Vaca and Estevanico continue on, learn Native American languages.  Estevanico is killed by Zuni.
19.    HERNANDO de SOTO (1539-1542) Spain – Searching for Cibola, 7 cities of gold, explored Florida, Southeast U.S., & Mississippi River.
20.    FRANCISCO de CORONADO (1540-1547) Spain – Leads expedition from Mexico into the Southwest looking for 7 cities of gold.  Discovers Zuni Indians, Grand Canyon and goes to Kansas.  Never finds Cibola.



Dark Ages – The time period from about 500 A.D. – 1000 A.D.

Middle Ages – The time period from about 1000 – 1500

In the late 1000’s The Middle East was conquered by Seljuk Turks (Muslims) who persecuted Christians.

All Christians in Western Europe were Catholic.

The Pope makes a call for Christians to take back the Holy Land from the Muslims.

Crusades – Series of wars (4) aimed at conquering the Holy Land.  They lasted for 200 years.

Results of the Crusades –
1.    Shipbuilding increased and advanced
2.    Trade increased with the Middle East
3.    A taste for new foods (spices, oranges, rice Etc.)

Renaissance (Rebirth) – Period of intellectual and artistic creativity (1350-1600)
1.    Invention  of Printing Press – Johann Gutenberg (Germany)
2.      Scholars
3.    Explorations (ideas, world)

Spain & Portugal drive out the Muslims

Europe wants to increase power through trade with China & Asia

Arab & Italy control trade across the Mediterranean Sea so another route is needed
Exploration Begins!!  Destiny — Asia

Chapter 2 Test Review


Know the following people and their significance:
Ferdinand Magellan            Leif Eriksson
Christopher Columbus        Samuel Champlain
Francisco Pizarro                Marco Polo
Martin Luther                     Amerigo Vespucci
Hernando Cortes                Montezuma
Vasco de Balboa                 Henry Hudson

Know the following:
1.  Who set up a navigation school for sailors?
2.  Which Native American helped in overthrowing the Aztecs?
3.  What did the Line of Demarcation do, who drew it, and which country got which side?
4.  When was the Renaissance, what changes took place during it?
5.  What was the purpose of the Crusades?
6.  What reasons allowed the conquistadors to conquer the Aztecs & Incas?
7.  What two resources in America did the French use to make money?
8.  Which explorer was the first to establish a trading route to Asia?
9.  What present day state did the Dutch first settle?
10.  What were Henry Hudson and Jacques Cartier searching for?
11.  What country did Columbus sail for and who financed his voyage?
12.  Why did the Aztecs hesitate to fight the Spanish?
13.  What were three results of the Crusades?
14.  Where was the first permanent European settlement in what is now the U.S. and when was it settled?
15.  Who condemned the cruel treatment of Native Americans by the Spanish and got laws changed to help protect them?
16.  Who broke off the Catholic Church in England and started his own church the Church of England?
17.  Which French religious thinker also broke off the Catholic Church?
18.  Who was Mali’s greatest king?
19.  Who was the first Spaniard to land on the mainland  of North America while searching for the fountain of youth?
20.  Who does England use as their basis for claims to land in North America?

Short Answer
1.  What invention in the 1400’s had the greatest impact on society and why?
2.  Why did the Spanish want to conquer the Aztecs and Incas?
3.  How did the system of encomienda affect the Native Americans?
4.  What was the significance of Magellan’s voyage?

Know the definitions to the following words:
mercantilism            mestizo            encomienda
circumnavigate            astrolabe            Renaissance