THE TEXAS REVOLUTION
1. In the 1820’s Stephen Austin receives land from Mexico & permission to start a settlement.
A. Austin brings 300 families to Texas and each receives approx. 1,000 acres.
B. In 1825 Mexico begins to accept all settlers large amounts of land cheap on condition they would do three things:
1. Swear loyalty to Mexico
2. Convert to the Catholic religion
3. Learn Spanish
C. 1830’s – 30,000 American settlers in Texas
D. Mexico outlaws slavery and tries to stop Americans from moving to Texas
E. Mexico places a high tax on imported goods from the U.S.
2. 1833 – General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna becomes President of Mexico & tightens control on Texas.
A. Austin meets with Santa Anna and demands restrictions on Texas be lifted, Austin is imprisoned, Santa Anna declares himself dictator & overthrows Mexico’s Constitution.
B. 1835 – Texas rebels against Mexican rule. Santa Anna sends troops to stop rebellion.
C. Texans win a few small victories at Gonzales & San Antonio
D. Santa Anna crosses the Rio Grande with 6,000 soldiers to crush rebellion.
E. 1836 – Santa Anna (4,000 soldiers) attacks deserted mission The Alamo (180 Texans) William Travis, Davie Crockett, Jim Bowie
F. After 12 days of fighting, Santa Anna takes the Alamo, all 180 Texans are killed.
G. March 2, 1836 Texas declares their Independence (during battle of Alamo). Sam Houston placed in charge of the army.
H. Another Mexican army takes Goliad and kills 300 prisoners.
I. “Remember the Alamo” & “Remember Goliad massacre” becomes the battle cry against Mexico.
J. Significance of Alamo – Time, Recruits & Justice
3. April 21, 1836 Texas troops defeat Santa Anna in surprise attack at San Jacinto River and force him to sign a treaty and leave Texas.
4. Texas sets up its own government like that of the U.S.A and elects Sam Houston as President.
Annexation of Texas
1. Texas wants to join the U.S. but Congress is fearful of upsetting the balance between slave and free states as well as possible war with Mexico.
2. Texas governs themselves from 1836-1845 (The Lone Star Republic)
3. December 29, 1845 Texas is annexed and becomes part of the U.S.
1. made up of Catholic missions, cattle ranches, most of the people living there were Indians or descendants of Spanish colonies
2. 1n 1840’s people from Europe and America start moving to California
3. Many Indians in California die from disease & lack of food
The Mexican War
1. Pres. Polk is determined to get the Southwest (Manifest Destiny)
2. U.S. offers to buy California & New Mexico – Mexico refuses
3. Pres. Polk uses border dispute between U.S. & Mexico to start a war with Mexico
4. U.S. claims border is Rio Grande, — Mexico claims it is Nueces River
5. Pres. Sends troops to Rio Grande under Zachary Taylor & Mexico sees this as an invasion.
6. Mexican troops cross Rio Grande and attack American forces
7. Polk asks Congress to declare war on Mexico stating “Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States has invaded our territory, and shed American blood on American soil.”
8. May 13, 1846 Congress declares war.
Polk’s War Plan
1. Secure the border at Texas
2. Seize control of California & New Mexico
3. Capture Mexico City
1. Captain Fremont leads rebellion in northern California. June 15, 1846 they declare California an Independent Republic & raise the bear flag.
2. Fremont & California join with the U.S.
3. General Taylor defeats Mexicans & Santa Anna at Battle of Buena Vista
4. General Kearny captures Santa Fe then takes San Diego
5. General Scott lands at Veracruz, takes the city, then marches toward Mexico City fighting the Mexican army as well as armed citizens, takes Mexico City September 1847, Mexico surrenders
1. U.S. lost 1,721 men to battle & more than 11,000 to disease
2. Cost the U.S. $100 million
3. Mexico lost more men & half their territory.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
1. Mexico gives up all claims to Texas, border is set at Rio Grande.
2. Mexico gives U.S. California & New Mexico for $15 million.
Gadsden Purchase 1853 – U.S. pays $10 million for a strip of land in Arizona & New Mexico (railroad)
MANIFEST DESTINY IS COMPLETE